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INDICATOR 2: Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS)
Why this indicator? What will it measure and provide information for?
Used by WFP and FAO for food security assessments in emergencies the Household Dietary Diversity Score is a qualitative measure of food consumption that reflects household access to a variety of foods, and is also a proxy for nutrient adequacy of the diet of individuals. The dietary diversity questionnaire represents a rapid, user-friendly and easily administered low-cost assessment tool. Scoring and analysis of the information collected with the questionnaire is straightforward. It focuses on energy and micro-nutrients. The HDDS is often used to measure dietary diversity of children and adult women. It is the simple sum of the number of food groups (from 0 to 12) consumed at household level, based on a twenty-four-hour recall.
What Sustainable Development Goal is the indicator connected to?
  • SDG Goal 2
Definitions and key terms
Household dietary diversity: The number of unique foods consumed by household members over a given period (twenty-four-hour recall).
Data and information required to calculate the indicator
  • Food consumption patterns before the crisis in the specific cultural, social and economic context of the affected area/community
  • Food consumption patterns changes as the result of the crisis
  • Sex disaggregation: women and men
Suggested method for data collection
  • Primary data collection: household survey
  • Secondary data analysis.
  • For more information: http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i1983e/i1983e00.pdf
  • Qualitative methods like FGDs and KIIs should supplement the quantitative data collection to provide a better understanding of barriers to food access.
Possible data sources
  • Primary data collection: household survey
  • Secondary data analysis.
  • Food Security surveillance / early warning systems: IPC, cadre harmonis√©, etc.
  • Qualitative methods like FGDs and KIIs should supplement the quantitative data collection to provide a better understanding of barriers to food access.
Resources needed for data collection
The quantitative and qualitative data collection, storage and analysis should be conducted by CARE and partners. Partners may include research / university partners. Data collection needs to be included in the monitoring and evaluation plan and budgeted
Reporting results for this indicator: number of people for which the change happened
Changes in food consumption patterns, especially the increase in the frequency and diversity of consumed food groups
Questions for guiding the analysis and interpretation of data (explaining the how and why the change happened, and how CARE contributed to the change)
  • Baseline: How have food consumption patterns changed because of the crisis? How were food consumption patterns before the crisis?
  • Progress: What are changes in food consumption patterns that are attributable to projects that aim to improve access to food?
  • Evaluation: How projects have contributed to improving diversified food access in supported communities?
Other considerations
  • Food access can be affected by several factors such as insecurity, market functionality, poverty, and social discrimination. Thus, qualitative data collection should be used to triangulate FCS score findings
  • Also, food availability and access is highly seasonal in developing countries, and more pronounced in fragile states. Therefore, diachronic FCS assessments should be carried out during the same period of the year relevant data comparison over a period of time.